Double Roller Press Granulator

Table of Contents

What is Double Roller Press Granulator?

A Double Roller Press Granulator is a type of fertilizer granulation equipment that compacts powders and turns them into granules using pressure. It is made up of two counter-rotating rollers that compress and drive the powders through a die to generate the required granule size and shape. 

The rollers have unique patterns or forms that can generate surface textures on the grains. 

Because neither water or heat are used in the process, it is a dry granulation method that may produce a variety of fertilizers, including complex fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and bio-fertilizers. 

The Double Roller Press Granulator produces granules with great density, strength, and stability, making them easy to transport and store.

 The equipment is simple to use, maintain, and clean, and it may be adapted to meet unique production needs.

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Basic Composition and Equipment Lists of Double Roller Press Granulator

Here is a summary of the basic components and equipment that make up a double roller press granulator:

Feed system

Feed hopper – Stores raw material and allows controlled feed into the granulator. Often with a feed screw, belt feeder or gravimetric feeder to regulate feed rate.

Vibrating feeder (optional) – Used for cohesive, bridging or sticky materials that do not flow freely from the hopper. Prevents feed blockages.


Rollers – Two heavy cylindrical rollers, typically cast iron, steel or rubber coated. Rollers rotate against each other at the same speed. Gap between rollers controls thickness of pressed granules.

Roller shafts – The rollers are mounted on large shafts to allow rotation. The shafts transmit power from the drive equipment to the rolling action.

Roller bearings – Heavy-duty roller bearings support and allow smooth rotation of the shafts and attached rollers. Provide millions of rotations before needing replacement.

Drives and controls

Electric motor(s) – Typically 250-500 HP or more. Directly drives the roller shafts through reduction gearing and V-belts or chains. Multiple motors may drive each roller.

Variable frequency drive – Allows variable control of roller speed for adjusting pressure and product hardness. Speed ranges from 10-50 RPM typical for most roll press applications.

Roller positioning sensors – Limit switches, proximity switches or video cameras detect if rollers are too close together (jam) or too far apart (material overflow). Shuts down equipment to prevent damage.

PLC and HMI – Programmable logic controller coordinates motors, drives, sensors and safety features. Human machine interface provides the operator controls and product/process monitoring.

Product handling

Granule discharge chute – Channels presaged granules out from between the rollers onto a discharge conveyor. Allows collecting and transporting granules for packaging, further processing or bagging.

Air slide, conveyors and elevators (optional) – May be needed if granules have a tendency to bridge or accumulate blocking discharge. Prevents jams by using air flow or mechanical action to keep granules moving freely.

Product collection equipment – Storage silos, bagging systems, bulk loading spouts, etc. Required to collect and package pressed granules for sale and shipment.

Double Roller Press Granulator Process Flow Chart (5)
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Structures of Double Roller Press Granulator

Several key structural aspects of a double roller press granulator include:


A heavy welded steel frame provides the base support structure for all components. The frame must be extremely sturdy to withstand the forces generated from the heavy rollers and high pressures without flexing or damaging. Box beam, I-beam and tubular steel designs are common.

Roller housings

The roller shafts are mounted within housings that encase the ends of the rollers. The housings transfer power to the rollers from the drive components. They are typically made of cast iron, steel or concrete for maximum durability.

Support pillars

Tall support pillars, often concrete encased, extend from the base frame up to the underside of the roller housings. The pillars carry the entire weight of the rollers, preventing the frame from sagging or bending under the load. Wider pillars provide the most stability for larger rollers.

Press frames

For some granulator designs, a fixed press frame extends between the roller housings and supports them parallel to each other. The spacing of the press frame control the distance between the rollers and the thickness of granules produced. As rollers wear down, the frame can be adjusted to narrow the gap.

Drivetrain supports

The shafts, bearings, gearboxes and other components transferring power to rotate the rollers are mounted to additional supports extending from the main frame. Sturdy supports prevent the drivetrain from twisting or coming loose under the extreme torque.

Feed system mounts

Hoppers, feed screws, gravimetric feeders and other feed equipment require heavy supports to properly route material into the press area between rollers. Mounts are integral with the main frame structure to ensure stable, vibration-free feeding.

Discharge chute supports

The discharge chute carrying granules away from between the rollers is supported by sturdy angled iron or tube steel supports mounted securely to the frame and press frame. The supports carry the weight of granules accumulating in the chute without drooping or sagging.

Safety frames

Some granulators incorporate frames that block access to pinch points or moving parts for safety. Though not carrying weight, safety frames are built from heavy, durable materials to withstand impacts or pushes without damage. Access doors or interlocks can allow manually clearing jams when power is locked out.

Double Roller Press Granulator Process Flow Chart (2)

Application of Double Roller Press Granulator

Double roller press granulators have a number of applications, especially for producing hard, durable granules of fertilizers, minerals, chemicals and plastics. Some of the major applications include:

Fertilizer production

Double roller presses are commonly used to granulate ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, potassium fertilizers and blends. The high pressures produce hard granules that are resistant to breakdown during handling, storage and application. Flat granules also have a larger surface area, allowing faster nutrient release.

Mineral processing

Minerals like limestone, dolomite, phosphate rock, potash and sodium silicate can be granulated using a double roller press. The intense compression produces granules ideal for various agricultural, chemical, construction and other mineral-based applications. Mineral granules have improved flow, dissolution and metering properties.

Chemical manufacturing

Many chemical intermediates, organic solids, plastics, polymers, waxes and synthetic resins can be granulated in a double roller press. Granulation improves properties for applications like extrusion, compression molding, briquetting, agglomeration, pelletizing and direct compression tableting. Chemical granules have higher bulk density, less dust and better handling characteristics.

Food industry

Double roller presses are sometimes used to granulate food-grade materials like flour, sugar, starch, molasses, biomass and nut pulps. Granules may be used as a thickening agent, natural sweetener, protein/fiber supplement, or biomass fuel. Food-grade granules must be produced using equipment that can be properly cleaned and meets high sanitation standards to avoid contamination.


Plastics, paper, rubber, tires, electronic waste and other recycled materials can potentially be granulated using a double roller press. Granulation improves properties for applications like extrusion, molding, piping, wiring, paving, roofing, sporting surfaces, biomass fuel and more. However, recycle materials can be problematic as contaminants may be compressed into the granules, fines may not bind well and degradation may occur under high pressure. Proper cleaning and material testing is important.

Pet feed

Some nut meals, peanut hulls, corn gluten, soybean hulls and other agricultural byproducts are granulated as pet feed supplements or components. Pet feed granules provide nutritional benefits, improve flow and metering properties, reduce dust and create opportunities for further processing like expansion or coating. However, pet feed must meet strict standards for nutritional value, contaminants, mycotoxins and processing aids. Extensive testing is required to ensure safety and quality.

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Raw Materials for Double Roller Press Granulator

The raw materials that can be processed using a double roller press granulator vary significantly depending on the specific application and product, but typically include:


Ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, potash, phosphates and blended fertilizer formulations. Requires materials that can withstand high pressures without decomposing.


Limestone, dolomite, quartz, feldspar, clay, talc, gypsum, potash, salt and soda ash. Minerals need to be sufficiently hard and non-friable for granulation.


Many organic and inorganic chemicals, synthetic resins, waxes, polymers, plastics and chemical intermediates. Requires materials that can be compressed into granules without damage or degradation.

Food ingredients

Flour, sugar, starch, molasses, nut meals, dairy solids, corn gluten meal and biomass. Materials must meet food grade standards for safety and quality. Often requires pre-cleaning and sanitation.

Recycled plastics/rubbers

HDPE, LDPE, PVC, PET, polypropylene, styrene, tires, e-waste and more. Recycled materials can be difficult to granulate and may require pre-sorting, cleaning and testing to remove contaminants before pressing.

Pet feed

Nut meals, peanut hulls, soybean hulls, corn gluten, distillers grains and other agricultural byproducts. Must meet high standards for nutritional quality, contaminants and processing aids for use as an animal feed ingredient. Extensive testing is required.

In general, the best raw materials for a double roller press granulator are hard, non-friable solids that can withstand compression into granules without damage, degradation or the generation of excessive fines. 

Moisture content, particle size, adhesion, hardness and other properties should be considered to determine if a material is suitable and how it might granulate under high pressure. 

Some raw materials may require pre-treatment like drying, screening or sanitation before granulation. Separation of fines or oversize material before pressing can also improve granulation for some applications.

Features of Double Roller Press Granulator

Some key features and benefits of double roller press granulators include:

High strength granules

The extreme pressures generated between the rollers produce very hard, durable granules. Granules can withstand high impact forces without breaking apart, enabling better handling, flow and metering properties. Strong granules are ideal for applications like fertilizers, minerals, chemicals, recycling and pet feed.

Controlled granule thickness

The precise distance between the rollers allows very tight control over the thickness of flattened granules. Narrower gaps produce thinner granules, while wider gaps make thicker granules. The ability to precisely control thickness provides flexibility and enables tailoring granules for different applications and uses.

Continuous pressing

Material is fed continuously into the gap between the rollers and granules are pressed and discharged continuously out the other side. This allows for very high throughput, often double or triple that of a drum granulator. Continuous pressing minimizes downtime and enables high volume production.

Higher bulk density

The compression within the rollers produces granules that are denser than original loose material or granules from other methods. Higher bulk density allows for greater product volume in a given shipping container, reducing freight costs. Denser granules also have improved flow and handling properties.

Less dust

The intense compression binds material together into hard granules, minimizing the generation of fine dust particles. Less dust results in a cleaner processing and handling environment, reduced product contamination and improved safety. Dust-free granules also flow and meter better for various applications.

Improved nutrient release

The flat, thin-flake granules produced by roller pressing have a high surface area to volume ratio. This allows for very fast dissolution and release of nutrients, especially useful for controlled release fertilizers and supplements. Flat granules can release their contents in minutes compared to hours for rounded granules.

Energy efficient

Although able to produce very hard granules, double roller presses often require 10-30% less power than drum granulators to operate. The continuous pressing action is more efficient than tumbling materials. Lower energy usage means lower costs, reduced environmental impact and more sustainable production.

Produces different granule types

By adjusting roller gap width, speed and other controls, a double roller press can produce granules in a range of thicknesses from thin flakes up to thick, rounded shapes similar to drum granulation. This flexibility enables optimization of properties for different product types and applications. Granule characteristics can even be tailored within a single production run.

Double Roller Press Granulator Process Flow Chart (1)

Advantages of Double Roller Press Granulator

Some of the main advantages of using a double roller press granulator include:

Hard and durable granules

The extreme pressures generated between rollers produce very hard, strong granules that are resistant to breakdown during handling, storage and use. Granules can withstand high impact forces without crushing for applications like fertilizers, minerals, chemicals, recycling and pet feed. Hard granules have improved flow, metering and DN properties.

Thick, flat granules

Rollers press material into thick, ribbon-like granules instead of rounded shapes. Flat granules have a much higher surface area to volume ratio, enabling faster dissolution and nutrient release, especially useful for controlled release fertilizers. Flat granules also stack and flow better for many applications.

Higher bulk density

Compression within the rollers produces granules that are denser than loose input material or granules from other methods. Higher bulk density allows for greater product volume in a given container, reducing freight costs. Dense granules also flow, pour and meter better with less dusting.

Continuous high throughput

Material is fed continuously into the press gap at a high rate, and granules discharge continuously at a high rate. Continuous pressing allows much higher throughput than batch methods like drums. Double the throughput of a drum granulator is not uncommon. Higher throughput reduces processing time and costs while improving capacity.

Reduced dust

Extreme compression binds material together, minimizing the generation of fine dust particles. Less dust results in a cleaner process environment, less product contamination and improved safety. Dust-free granules also have a longer shelf life with greater stability, flow and metering ability.

Improved energy efficiency

Although producing very hard granules, roller presses often require 10-30% less power than drum granulators. The continuous pressing action is more efficient than tumbling materials. Lower energy usage means lower operational costs, reduced environmental impact and a smaller carbon footprint.


Even a single granulator can produce multiple types of granules by adjusting the roller gap width, speed and other controls. Granule thickness can range from thin flakes to thick, rounded shapes as needed for different products and applications. This flexibility enables optimization of properties for all products rather than compromise, improving quality, performance and cost effectiveness overall.

Precise control

Tight control over the roller gap allows precise control of granule thickness. Narrower gaps produce thinner granules, wider gaps make thicker granules. This level of control provides flexibility and the ability to tailor granules perfectly for diverse applications, achieving the ideal balance of properties for quality, handling, dissolution and other factors. Precise control leads to a superior end product and reduced waste.

Double Roller Press Granulator Process Flow Chart (3)

Production Process of Double Roller Press Granulator

The basic production process using a double roller press granulator includes the following steps:

Material handling and feeding

The raw material is handled, conveyed and fed into the granulator at a controlled rate using a hopper, feed screw, belt feeder or gravimetric feeder. The feed rate impacts retention time and final granule size. Faster feeding produces smaller granules while slower feeding allows larger granules to form.

Feeding between rollers

The material is fed between the rotating rollers, either between the ends of the rollers or through a narrow gap in the center. The material resides between the rollers for a short time based on the feed rate and roller speed.

Compression and flattening

As the material passes between the rotating, pressed rollers, it is subjected to extreme compression forces. The rollers press and flatten the material, bonding particles together into flat granule shapes. The distance between the rollers controls the final thickness of the granules.

Granule discharge

The pressed granules are discharged out from between the rollers onto a conveyor belt or into a collection chute for packaging, cooling or further processing. Some granules may remain stuck to the rollers, requiring periodic cleaning. Cross-contamination can be an issue, requiring frequent equipment flushing when producing multiple types of granules.

Granule collection and cooling

The hot granules discharged from the press may require cooling, typically using air, water or a combination, before collecting and packaging to prevent clumping and damage. Cooled granules have a longer shelf life and enhanced stability and flowability. Not all granule types and applications require cooling after pressing.

Packaging and shipping

The granules are collected and packaged in bags, supersacks, drums or bulk shipping containers as needed for transportation and sales. Properly packaged and cooled granules can be stored for long periods before use while retaining optimal quality and properties.


Regular cleaning of equipment is required to prevent built-up material, especially sticky, dusty or corrosive types. Cleaning helps ensure proper operation, maximizes uptime, produces consistent quality and meets safety standards. Thorough cleaning is needed when switching between different raw materials.

Double Roller Press Granulator Process Flow Chart (4)

How Does Double Roller Press Granulator Work?

A double roller press granulator works by applying extreme pressure between two counter-rotating rollers to compress particles together into flat, durable granules. Some key aspects of how a roller press granulator works include:


Two heavy cylindrical rollers, typically cast iron, steel or rubber coated, rotate against each other. The gap between the rollers crushes and flattens material fed between them. Narrowing the gap increases pressure and produces harder granules, while widening the gap decreases pressure and creates softer granules.

Roller rotation

The rollers rotate at the same speed but in opposite directions to each other, with material gripped and pressed between them as they roll past each other. Roller rotation is powered by electric motors and variable frequency drives allow controlling the speed which impacts pressure and granule properties. Higher speed produces smaller granules when other factors remain unchanged.

Continuous feeding

Material is fed continuously into the gap between the rotating rollers at a controlled rate using a hopper or feed system. The feed rate impacts the amount of time material spends passing between the rollers, affecting residence time and resulting granule size. Faster feeding results in smaller granules as less total pressure is applied before discharge. Slower feeding enables longer residence times and larger granule size.


As material passes through the narrowing gap between the rotating rollers, it is subjected to extreme compression forces. Continual compression flattens and laminates particles together, bonding them into rectangular granules. The strength of compression impacts how much individual particles fuse together. Higher compression produces the strongest, hardest granules.


In addition to compressing particles together, the rollers press and flatter the material into thin, flat granules. Not just compressing but also shearing and flattening allows quantifying the final size, thickness and geometry of granules produced. Flatter granules have a higher surface area, enabling faster dissolution and release of nutrients or other contained properties.


The pressed granules discharge from between the rollers out onto a conveyor belt or into a collection chute by the continuous movement of the rollers. Shorter residence times result in smaller granules collecting closer to the point of discharge, while longer residence times allow larger granules to build up before discharging. Proper discharge requires an adequately wide gap at the end of the press for granules to pass through without tearing or rupturing.

Working Principle of Double Roller Press Granulator

The key working principles of a double roller press granulator include:

Generation of high pressure

The massive, counter-rotating rollers produce a pressure differential as material passes through the narrowing gap between them. Compression from the rollers can reach 10-30 MPa (14,000-43,000 psi) or even higher, subjecting the material to extreme pressures which both compact and flatten the particles. Higher pressure results in a harder, denser product with greater strength and less friability.

Continuous pressing

Material is fed continuously into the press gap between the rotating rollers. As the rollers compress and flatten the material into granules, they continue moving along between the rollers before discharging. Continuous feeding and pressing enables a constant production of granules at a high throughput rate, compared to batch methods. Material spends from fractions of a second up to several seconds passing through the press depending on feed rate and roller parameters.

Rollers shear and compress

The cylindrical rollers both compress the material under high pressure and shear it by cutting and flattening the particles to produce flat granules. Rotating rollers grab, squeeze, cut and reshape material into ribbons and flakes of a uniform thickness. The combined effect of compression and shearing allows quantitatively controlling not just the hardness but also the size, shape and geometry of final granules.

Heat generation

The deformation work required to compress, flatten and bind material together under high pressure generates thermal energy which heats the granules. Some heat is dissipated to surrounding equipment and structures, but granules can reach 50-100 oC (120-212 oF) or higher before discharging from the press. Generated heat helps render materials more plastic, allowing better adhesion under pressure. It must be managed to avoid damage, as too much heat can degrade sensitive materials.

Controlled thickness

The precise distance between the counter-rotating rollers allows finely tuning the final thickness of granules. Narrowing the space produces thinner, flatter granules while widening the space results in thicker, more rounded granules. This level of control enables optimizing granule properties for different applications, including factors like dissolution rate, handling characteristics, pellet strength and bulk density. Granule thickness can range from <1 mm up to 10 mm or more depending on the material and roller settings.

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What Capacities Can a Double Roller Press Granulator Accommodate?

The production capacity of a double roller press granulator depends on several factors, including:

Roll diameter and width

Larger rollers can process more material per revolution, increasing throughput. Doubling the roller diameter roughly quadruples its surface area and capacity. Wider rollers across the press gap can also handle more material at once. However, larger rollers require more power to rotate and heavier, more expensive construction.

Roller rotation speed

Faster roller speeds increase throughput by processing more material per unit time. However, higher speeds also reduce residence time, limiting granule size and hardness. Roller speed must be balanced for optimal productivity and product quality. Typical maximum speeds range from 50 to 100 RPM.

Feed rate

The rate at which material is fed into the press gap impacts how fast it can be processed and granulated. Higher feed rates increase throughput but reduce residence time, resulting in smaller granules. Feed rate must match roller speed and size for continuous pressing without material buildup or overflow.

Number of rollers

Some designs use multiple sets of rollers, either in parallel (for wider processing) or in series (for longer residence time and larger granules). Additional rollers significantly boost capacity but also increase costs, size, power requirements and complexity. Most single roller presses accommodate 20-100 t/hr, while twin or triple rollers can reach 200 t/hr or more.

Material properties

Characteristics like particle size, moisture content, hardness, flowability and stickiness impact how quickly and easily material can be pressed into granules. Finer, softer, stickier or more cohesive materials generally require slower speeds and higher residence times, limiting maximum capacity. Coarse, free-flowing materials can be granulated at faster rates for high throughput.

Agglomerate strength

The density and hardness of granules also influences capacity and productivity. Strong, dense granules hold together better during higher-speed processing and discharge, allowing faster roller speeds and feed rates without excessive breakdown or dusting. Weaker granules tend to fall apart more easily, requiring slower operation.

Typical throughputs for double roller press granulators range from 20 to 200 metric tons per hour depending on the factors above. Smaller single-roll presses may produce only 20-50 t/hr, while large-scale twin- or triple-roll systems with optimal material and settings can reach 150-200 t/hr or more

In general, the largest capacity gains come from increasing roller diameter and width, adding more sets of rollers in series and developing materials and processes to produce the strongest, most durable granules possible for high-speed operation.

Is Double Roller Press Granulator Customizable?

Double roller press granulators can often be customized to some extent, depending on specific needs and requirements. Some ways in which roller press granulators may be customized include:

Roll size and width

The diameter, width and surface area of the rollers can typically be increased or decreased to suit different materials and throughputs. Larger rollers can handle more material at once but require more power and stronger construction. Custom roll sizes may require non-standard parts and reconfiguring the equipment.

Number of roll sets

Adding extra sets of rollers in series allows longer residence time, producing larger granules or enabling slower roller speeds to generate more agglomerate strength. Additional roll sets boost capacity but significantly increase size, weight, cost and complexity. Custom roll configurations are more complex and expensive to design and build.

Roller surface

Roller surfaces can sometimes be customized beyond just cast iron and rubber. Options may include steel, ceramic, titanium carbide and more for different materials. Specialized surfaces help prevent damage, reduce friction or allow processing at higher temperatures. However, non-standard surfaces also tend to cost more and limit roller/shaft compatibility.

Gap width control

Fine-tuning the mechanism controlling the gap width between rollers may allow more precise control over granule thickness for optimal quality, especially when producing multiple grades or switching between materials. Upgraded gap controls provide increased flexibility but also add to cost and complexity.

Internal cooling

For heat-sensitive or temperature-Limiting materials, internal coolant systems and heat exchangers can be installed within the rollers or roller housings to control granule temperature. Cooling systems help prevent degradation or clumping for quality retention, but significantly increase equipment size, cost, power usage and maintenance needs.

Feeding systems

Alternative material feeding systems can sometimes be adapted or mounted to suit different materials, moisture contents or application needs. Options include belt feeders, gravimetric feeders, vibratory feeders, screw feeders and more. Custom feeding systems must properly interface with the existing granulator frame, rollers, controls and discharge to function correctly, complicating the overall design.

Controls and monitoring

Additional or upgraded sensors, controls, drives and monitoring systems may be installed to improve quality, flexibility, safety, cost effectiveness or environmental impact. Automating and closely controlling the granulation process helps optimize performance for different runs or when switching between materials. However, more advanced controls and monitoring add cost, complexity, hardware requirements and software/integrator needs.

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Is Double Roller Press Granulator Batch or Continuous?

Double roller press granulators are continuous processing machines, rather than operating in batch mode. Some key differences between continuous and batch granulation include:

Continuous granulation (roller press):

•Material is fed into the press continuously at a controlled rate. As granules discharge continuously from the rollers, more material is fed in to keep the process running. This allows for high throughput and productivity.

•Residence time is typically shorter, ranging from fractions of a second up to several seconds as material passes through the press. Shorter residence times result in smaller granule size, all else being equal. Residence time depends on feed rate, roller speed and other settings.

•Changes in production can be made quickly by adjusting the feed rate, roller speed, gap width and other controls. This allows fast switching between materials or graded product sizes for flexibility. However, extreme or rapid changes may temporarily disrupt production.

•Continuously generating heat and pressure means higher energy usage and costs. However, more efficient continuous motion often requires less power than repeatedly cycling equipment on and off.

•Space requirements tend to be larger due to the size of continuous feeders, conveyors, storage equipment and collections systems needed to keep a continuous process running at high output.

•Automation is useful for coordinating all the controls, sensors, drives, feeders and other components required for continuous operation without interruptions or variable quality issues. Close automatic control helps achieve consistent production.

Batch granulation (drum):

•Material is mixed and loaded into the equipment in batches at a time. The batch size determines how much can be granulated before unloading and reloading new material. Larger batch sizes mean less frequent reloading but cycles take longer. Smaller batches provide more flexibility but at the cost of higher reloading efforts.

•Equipment cycles between filling/loading, processing/granulating, and emptying/unloading stages. There are periods of inactivity between processing batches. This results in lower throughput and productivity compared to continuous methods.

•Longer residence times are typically possible within a single batch cycle. As a result, batch granulation often produces larger particle sizes and less fines for applications requiring a coarser product.

•Changes in production require completely unloading existing material, cleaning equipment and reloading a new batch with different properties. This is a slower process than adjusting set points for continuous operation, limiting flexibility.

• batch granulation may require a slightly smaller overall footprint as continuous feed systems and larger storage equipment are not needed. However, additional space is still normally required for reloading material and equipment access.

•More manual monitoring and adjustment is typically required for batch processing compared to continuous automatic control. Close supervision helps ensure even, consistent granulation across the full batch with minimal quality issues.

Types of Double Roller Press Granulator Fertilizer Pellets

There are several common types of double roller press granulated fertilizer pellets, depending on specifications required. Some of the major types include:

Controlled release fertilizers

Granules have coatings or are designed to slowly release nutrients over time according to crop needs. Controlled release helps prevent nutrient loss and burning crop roots, reducing the number of applications needed. Release rate depends on coating thickness and chemistry.

Slow release fertilizers

Similar to controlled release but without advanced coatings. Nutrients are released gradually through natural weathering and degradation of the granule chemistry and structure. Release takes place over a longer period, often 3-6 months. Slower release tends to be more economical but less consistent than controlled release.

Soluble granules

Granules are made from highly soluble fertilizer particles and coatings that dissolve in moisture, releasing nutrients almost immediately. Useful for foliar feeding or quick correction of deficiencies. However, nutrients can be released too quickly, increasing the risk of burning crops. Close monitoring of soil conditions is important.

Sulphur-coated urea (SCU)

Granules have a sulphur coating that slows the conversion of ammonium to nitrate, extending the time before nitrogen is released. The sulphur coating delays nitrogen release for 4 to 6 weeks after application. SCU helps prevent nitrogen loss through volatile ammonia or leaching before crops can use it.


Urea granules are coated with polymer materials that control the release of nitrogen over time. The polymer coating can slow nitrogen release for 3 months or longer. Polyon coatings provide very precise control over nutrient release timing which is useful for maximizing efficiency and minimizing environmental impact. However, polymer coatings also tend to add significantly to cost.


Variousother chemical compounds are used as coatings or added to granules to modify the release characteristics of nitrogen and other nutrients. Examples include urease inhibitors, nitrification inhibitors, polymer coatings, wax coatings and resin coatings. Different compounds have varying effects on release timing, consistency and efficiency. Multiple compounds can also be combined for tailored nutrient release.


Granules may contain a blend of multiple nitrogen sources (like urea and ammonium nitrate) or be coated/treated with multiple release-modifying compounds to achieve a balanced, efficient and consistent supply of nutrients to crops over an extended period. Blends help optimize use of nutrients based on specific soil and climate conditions as well as crop needs.

How to Make Double Roller Press Granulator Fertilizer?

Here are the basic steps to make fertilizer granules using a double roller press granulator:

Select fertilizer ingredients

Choose the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer materials needed for your specific product and application. Common ingredients include urea, ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride, etc. Consider release rate, cost and environmental impact for sustainable use.

Determine formulation

Decide on the ratio and amounts of each fertilizer ingredient needed to achieve the target nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium analysis for your granule. The formulation depends on crop needs, soil conditions and any nutrient deficiencies. Blends of multiple ingredients often provide the most balanced nutrition.

Ensure proper mixing

Thoroughly mix all fertilizer ingredients together in the correct proportions before feeding into the granulator. Use a cement mixer, pug mill, tumble mixer or similar equipment to ensure even mixing and coating. Any unmixed areas will not granulate properly.

Add modifiers (optional)

You can add coatings, polymers, wax or other release-modifying compounds to produce controlled release fertilizer granules. Coatings modify the rate at which nutrients are released to match crop demand. Follow directions to properly mix and apply any coatings.

Set granulator controls

Adjust the roller gap width, speed, feed rate and other controls on the granulator to produce granules of your desired size and nutrient release characteristics. Narrower gaps and slower speeds produce smaller granules, wider gaps and faster speeds make larger granules.

Feed material into granulator

Use a belt feeder, gravimetric feeder or similar equipment to feed the fertilizer mixture into the granulator at a consistent, controlled rate. The feed rate impacts residence time and resulting granule size. Faster feeding produces smaller granules, slower feeding allows larger granules.

Collect and cool granules (optional)

Discharged granules may require collection and cooling before storage or bagging, depending on material and design. Cooling helps prevent clumping and preserves quality. Air, water or a combination can be used. Not all fertilizers need cooling. Allow granules to dry completely if water cooled before handling.

Package or store granules

Package the fertilizer granules in bags, supersacks or drums as needed for sale and distribution. Store bulk granules in a cool, dry location away from extremes. Use within 1-2 years for best results. Properly stored granules maintain nutrient content, release rate and other properties.

How to Produce Round Granules in Double Roller Press Granulator?

To produce round granules instead of flat flakes using a double roller press granulator, there are a few adjustments you can make:

Increase roller speed

Spinning the rollers at a faster speed will reduce residence time, limiting the amount of flattening that occurs. Material will pass through the press too quickly to become completely flattened into ribbons. Faster speeds produce smaller, more rounded granules. However, faster speeds also reduce compression, resulting in weaker granules. There is an optimal speed for minimally flattened, rounded granules with adequate strength.

Widen roller gap

Widening the gap between the counter-rotating rollers reduces the amount of compression and flattening that can take place. Wider gaps allow material to pass through with more rounded shapes rather than becoming severely flattened. The wider the gap, the more rounded the resulting granules will be. However, wider gaps also mean lower compaction and weaker granules with poorer flow and handling properties.

Reduce feed rate

Feeding material into the press at a slower rate increases the total time spent passing between the rollers. Slower feeding provides more opportunity for compression and some flattening to occur, helping prevent excessively rounded granules even at faster speeds or wider gaps. A balance of faster speeds/wider gaps and slower feeding can achieve granules that are rounded rather than flattened, but still adequately compressed in strength and density.

Lubricate rollers

Applying a lubricating agent, like wax, oil or polymer, to the roller surfaces helps material pass through more easily without sticking or flattening out. The lubricant creates a barrier between the rollers and material, limiting compression. Only light rounding occurs rather than severe flattening. Lubrication is useful when speeds and gaps have been optimized but product is still not adequately rounded. However, lubrication also reduces densification, weakening the granules.

Adjust pressure differential

If pressure controls are available on your specific granulator, reducing the amount of pressure applied between the rollers will limit how much material can flatten out. Lower pressure means less compression force, resulting in greater rounding. Pressure controls, if available, allow precisely tuning the amount of shaping versus densification to achieve your ideal rounded granule. Lack of pressure will prevent granulation altogether, so some minimum level is still needed.

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How to Batch and Ratio Raw Materials for Producing Fertilizer Particles?

Here are some tips for batching and determining ratios of raw materials when producing fertilizer granules:

Determine fertilizer grade needed

Decide what nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels you want to achieve in the final granules. Higher grades mean more nutrient content but also higher cost. Select a grade that meets your specific needs and budget.

Choose raw materials

Select urea, ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride, etc. as needed to provide the nutrients in your target grade. Consider actual nutrient content by weight for each material. Urea is 46% N, ammonium nitrate is 34% N, etc.

Calculate nutrient needs

Determine how much total nitrogen, phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) is needed in your granules based on the fertilizer grade. Then calculate how much of each nutrient each raw material will contribute to meet those total needs. Add materials gradually until needs are met.

Check total weight

Keep calculating the total weight of all raw materials added to ensure your final granule weight and feasible production rates can be achieved. Lighter granules may require 2-3 times the material to reach the same nutrient content by weight. Adjust amounts up or down as needed.

Consider other factors

Look at material cost, availability, handling properties and environmental impact when determining ratios. Choose least-cost, sustainable options whenever possible to maximize efficiency while minimizing impact. Some materials also provide fluoride or micronutrients as a bonus.

Calculate batch size

Decide how much total material you need to produce your desired amount of fertilizer granules. Estimate wastage and calculate a reasonable batch size that can be mixed thoroughly based on your equipment size and mixing capabilities. Larger batches may be more economical but harder to mix uniformly.

Record and re-check

Carefully record the amounts of each raw material added for future reference. Re-check calculations to ensure the nutrient analysis and other specifications of your granules will meet targets before proceeding to granulation. It is easier to correct a batch before rather than after processing.

Consider additives (optional)

Additional materials like coatings, colorants, odorants, etc. may be added depending on the fertilizer type and properties needed. Carefully follow directions to properly mix any additives to achieve even distribution throughout the batch.

How to Grind Fertilizer Granules to Powder?

Here are some tips for grinding fertilizer granules into powder:

Select appropriate grinding equipment

Common options include hammer mills, impact mills, lump breakers, ball mills, pin mills and roller mills. Consider the size of granules, hardness, brittle versus ductile, and any abrasive materials which can help determine the best type of equipment for your specific fertilizer. Faster, higher-impact grinding often requires more power but can achieve finer powder with less oversize.

Control grinding dimensions

Select equipment with screens, mesh sizes or clearances that will produce powder in the fineness range you need. Larger mesh means finer powder, smaller mesh produces coarser powder. Finer powder has more surface area but lower bulk density so use and handling properties differ. Choose a balance of fineness and practicality for your purpose.

Adjust settings carefully

Start with conservative settings and slowly increase power, speed, pressure or grit size until you reach your target fineness. It is easier to achieve a coarser product than eliminate excessively fine powder. Make incremental adjustments, checking fineness in between, to avoid overgrinding.

Use multiple grinding stages (if needed)

Especially coarse or hard granules may require multiple grinding stages to reach a fine, even powder. Check fineness after each stage to identify when additional grinding provides diminishing returns. Multi-stage grinding also allows optimizing size after each stage for enhanced efficiency, quality and reduced oversize or dust.

Add liquid (optional)

For some soft, agglomerate or dust-prone fertilizers, adding a small amount of liquid (like water) before grinding can help achieve a more even powder with minimal oversize or dust. However, liquid also reduces powder density which must be accounted for when handling and using. Test on a small portion first to determine appropriate liquid type and amount needed for your specific fertilizer and grind specifications.

Avoid overheating

Grinding generates heat which can damage nutrients if excessive. Monitor material temperature and avoid overload signs like tripped breakers, fused equipment parts or fused material. Allowing material to cool between grinding stages can also prevent overheating buildup. Using cold grinding media or a coolant system provides more temperature control and nutrient retention.

Handle powder properly

Fertilizer powder has high surface area so caking and clumping are common issues. Keep powder in a cool, dry location in airtight containers. Use dust suppression additives, flow agents or other anti-caking agents especially for highly dusty materials. Screen or sift powder before use to remove any remaining oversize particles.

How to Mix Fertilizer Powder and What's the Mixing Process?

Here are some key tips for mixing fertilizer powders and best practices for the mixing process:


Determine mix specifications

Decide what nutrient analysis (N-P-K grade) and other properties you want to achieve in the final mixed powder.  This will determine which powders and ratios to combine.  Consider the intended use and crops that will receive the fertilizer.  Higher grades mean more nutrients but also higher cost.


Select powder ingredients

Choose urea, ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride or other powders that will provide the nutrients needed in your target analysis when combined.  Know the actual nutrient content of each powder.


Calculate powder amounts

Determine how much total nitrogen, phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) is needed for your batch size.  Then calculate how much of each nutrient and powder is required to meet those needs while maintaining your target analysis.  Adjust amounts up or down as needed to optimize cost or impact. 


Consider factors

Look at costs, availability, handling properties, nutrient retention and environmental impact of each powder and the final mixed product.  Choose options that maximize effectiveness and sustainability for your situation.  Blending multiple powders often provides the most balanced, comprehensive nutrition at an affordable price.


Achieve even mixing

Use equipment like cement mixers, horizontal mixers, vertical screw mixers or tumble blenders that can thoroughly combine powders without segregation.  Mixing should be conducted under controlled conditions until a homogeneous product is achieved.  Uneven mixing will result in inconsistent nutrient analysis and product properties.


Add colorants or other additives (optional)

If mixing powders to produce colored or specialty fertilizers, add colorants, coatings, odorants or other additives and ensure even distribution throughout the batch.  Follow directions carefully and test a sample before proceeding to full-scale production. 


Record specifications

Carefully note the amounts of each powder added and final target analysis for reference.  This allows easily recreating future batches with the exact same specifications whenever needed.  Even minor adjustments can impact properties, so consistency is important. 


Re-check before packaging

Once mixing is complete, re-test a sample to confirm your target nutrient analysis and other critical specifications have been achieved before proceeding to packaging and distribution.  It is easier to make corrections at this stage rather than addressing issues with product already on the market.


Follow safe practices

Always exercise caution when handling chemical fertilizer powders and mixtures.  Prevent contamination, spills, dust exposure, static shocks, clogs and other issues that could damage equipment, pollute the environment or cause harm.  Safeguards and proper training should be in place for all personnel and equipment.

What's the Granulating Process for Producing Fertilizer Particles?

The granulating process for producing fertilizer particles typically involves the following main steps:



Powdered fertilizer ingredients (urea, ammonium nitrate, triple superphosphate, potassium chloride, etc.) are blended together in the desired ratios to achieve the target nutrient analysis (N-P-K grade) for your product.  Blending ensures evenly mixed, homogeneous powder that will granulate properly.  Additives can also be included at this stage if needed. 



Precisely controlled amounts of water or other liquid binders are added to the powder under agitation, achieving a dough-like consistency that is plastic yet coherent.  Too little moisture prevents granule formation, too much leads to crumbling.  Moisture content is critical for producing strong, durable granules.



The moistened powder is pressed into spherical granules using roll compaction, extrusion, pan granulation or tumble granulation.  Pressure helps bind particles together into durable granules that retain their spherical shape.  Smaller granules have more surface area but lower strength, larger granules are more robust but dust prone.  An optimal size range is desired for your product and intended use.



Freshly formed granules have high moisture content, so they are dried using techniques like hot air drying, spin flash drying, low density drying or fluid bed drying.  Drying removes excess moisture without damaging granule integrity or nutrient content.  Proper drying is key to producing granules that are strong yet friable, with good flow and handling properties.


Coating (optional)

Granules may receive additional coatings like waxes, polymers, sulfur or urease/nitrification inhibitors depending on release characteristics and other properties needed for your specific product.  Coatings are applied after drying using equipment like pan coaters, extrusion coaters, spray coaters or dust-on techniques.  Coatings help control nutrient release, prevent caking and improve other attributes as desired.



Finished granules are tested to ensure they meet all specifications before packaging and distribution.  Analysis for nutrient content, moisture, hardness, friability, dustiness, dissolution, and release characteristics are typically conducted to guarantee your granules will perform as intended when applied.  Out-of-spec product is reprocessed or scrapped.



Granules are packaged in bags, supersacks, bulk boxes, drums or other containers suitable for storage, transportation and sale.  Proper packaging helps keep granules dry, prevents contamination, and maintains consistent properties throughout shelf life. 

How to Separate Qualified And Unqualified Fertilizer Particles?

There are several techniques used for separating qualified (properly formed) fertilizer granules from unqualified (under-sized, over-sized, cracked or flawed) particles:



Granules are passed over screens or mesh with different sized openings to separate particles into fractions based on size.  Qualified granules will pass through the target size range, unqualified particles are either too large to pass through (oversize) or too small to be captured (fines).  Multiple screens may be used for more precise sizing and separating. 


Air classification

A fan or centrifugal force is used to classify particles by size and density.  Lighter, smaller particles are carried away while heavier, larger particles drop out of the airstream.  Air classification can produce very consistent granule size fractions but requires significant power and can damage some types of granules.  It works best with lower-density, brittle materials. 


Rubber or metal belt

Granules are passed over a belt moving at increasing speeds to separate into fractions based on size, shape and strength.  Qualified granules have properties that allow them to maintain contact with the belt, whereas unqualified particles bounce off and fall away at lower belt speeds.  This can be an effective method but is more difficult to control precisely than screening or air classification.


Tumble separation

Granules are mixed in a rotating drum or tumble separator where lighter, smaller or more irregular particles tumble with less force and are gradually separated from larger, stronger, qualified granules.  Tumble separation works well for rounding and smoothing rough edges or separating fines from qualified granules.  However, it requires significant time and space and may not achieve the tight control of hand screening. 


Magnetic separation

For fertilizers containing iron or steel, a magnetic field can be used to separate magnetic particles.  Any iron granules or scrap particles become magnetized and are removed by the magnetic force, leaving only non-magnetic qualified granules.  This method can only be applied to fertilizers where some particles exhibit magnetism, and magnetic properties must be properly calibrated for effective separation. 


Density separation

In suspension, particles sink or float at different rates depending on density.  Heavier, denser qualified granules will sink more rapidly than lighter unqualified particles which float longer.  Special solution baths, centrifuges and sink-float equipment can exploit this effect to produce highly separated fractions by density.  Density separation provides excellent control but requires specialized equipment and may affect some granules.

How to Process The Qualified Fertilizer Granules After Screening?

After screening qualified fertilizer granules, there are several additional processes that can be applied:



Granules may receive coatings like wax, polymer, sulfur or inhibitor coatings to modify release properties, prevent caking or improve other attributes.  Coatings are applied using equipment such as pan coaters, extrusion coaters, spray coaters or dust-on coaters.  Coatings help control the rate and pattern of nutrient release for maximized effectiveness and minimal environmental impact. 



Granules can be colored using pigments, dyes or other coloring agents to develop a custom appearance for your fertilizer product.  coloring is applied using the same coating equipment after any performance-modifying coatings.  Coloring allows for product identification and differentiation. 



Qualified granules can be agglomerated using a binder to form larger, stronger granule aggregates with improved handling properties but retaining smaller granule surface area for efficient nutrient release.  Agglomeration is achieved using equipment like pan agglomerators or rotary drums.  It produces a lighter product that pours and spreads more easily but still functions like a conventional granule. 



Additional nutrients, micronutrients or other supplements can be mixed with screened granules to enrich the product.  Nutrients are carefully blended into the granules using tumble mixers, ribbon blenders, cement mixers or horizontal paddle mixers to achieve evenly distributed enrichment without damaging granule integrity. 



Screened granules can be re-pelletized using moistening, rolling and drying techniques to produce larger pellets with improved durability and handling properties for applications like slow-release fertilizers.  Pelletization is useful for reforming exceptionally small or irregularly shaped granules into uniform, spherical pellets. 



Processed granules often undergo testing to ensure all specifications continue to be met after additional treatment.  Typical tests include analysis for nutrient content, moisture, hardness, friability, dustiness, dissolution and release characteristics.  Out-of-spec product is reprocessed or discarded to guarantee performance meets target specifications before sale or use.



Final packaged granules should be labeled according to all processing methods applied to maintain consistency and ensure proper use, handling and storage.  Customers need to know specifications for release rates, hazard levels, application methods and any other parameters impacted by processing.

How to Dry The Qualified Fertilizer Granules?

There are several techniques used for drying qualified fertilizer granules:

Hot air drying

Granules are passed through a hot air dryer.  Hot air is circulated around the granules, evaporating moisture and drying the material.  Hot air drying is a gentle method but requires significant energy and space.  It can be easily controlled to avoid overheating sensitive nutrients.  Multiple drying stages with decreasing air temperature are often used.

Fluid bed drying

Granules are suspended in an upward airflow and heated from the bottom.  Moisture is evaporated and carried away with the airflow.  Fluid bed drying provides very quick, even drying but requires complex equipment, frequent cleaning and high energy costs.  It can damage fragile granules or degrade temperature-sensitive nutrients if not properly controlled.

Infrared drying

Granules are exposed to high-intensity infrared radiation which heats the material and evaporates moisture.  Infrared drying is a fast, efficient method but requires significant capital equipment costs.  It can effectively dry granules without direct contact, avoiding damage, but may lead to overheating if not carefully controlled.

Spin flash drying

Granules are rapidly spun in a drum to fling off moisture.  Spin flash drying is a quick method requiring little energy or space but is best suited to coarse, irregularly shaped granules.  It can damage fragile granules and does not achieve uniform drying, so residual moisture may lead to clumping.  It is often used as a pre-drying step before a gentler, more controlled final drying method. 

Low-density drying

Low air density is used to reduce the boiling point of water and lower the energy required to evaporate moisture from granules.  The lower air pressure allows for faster, more efficient drying.  This method requires a sealed drying system and specialized equipment to achieve the necessary air pressure, increasing costs.  It is very gentle, avoiding overheating, but the low pressure can damage some sensitive granules. 

Microwave drying

Granules are exposed to microwave radiation, which heats the material and evaporates moisture.  Microwave drying is an extremely fast, energy efficient method but equipment can be expensive, and there are concerns about nutrient degradation, granule damage and hotspots.  It is best suited to high-moisture materials and requires careful control and testing to ensure no adverse effects. 


Dried granules are tested to ensure all moisture and quality specifications are met before sale or use.  Moisture content, nutrient analysis, hardness, friability, dust and other critical parameters are measured to guarantee performance, safety and standards compliance.  Out-of-spec product is re-dried or discarded.

How to Get The Dried Granules Cooled?

There are several techniques used for cooling dried fertilizer granules after drying:


Air cooling

Granules are allowed to cool naturally by circulating air around the material.  Air cooling requires little equipment or energy cost but can be a slow process, especially for larger product volumes.  It provides even, controlled cooling with no risk of overcooling sensitive nutrients.  Moving air over and through the granules via fans helps speed cooling and increase efficiency. 


Flooded bed cooling

Purged air is replaced with cool air or nitrogen bubbled through the granules.  Flooded bed cooling rapidly cools granules using large volumes of air circulation.  It requires an air source, delivery system and sealed cooling chamber but can quickly cool granules with minimal temperature gradient.  There is little risk of overcooling with properly controlled air temperature and flow. 


Belt or screw conveying

Granules are conveyed over/through a cooled belt, paddle or helical screw surface using a conveyor to facilitate heat transfer and cooling.  Conveying increases surface area exposure for faster cooling.  Belt or screw cooling equipment must be thoroughly cleaned to avoid contamination.  Cooling rates depend on product parameters but are generally faster than circulating air alone. 


Water quenching

A spray of water or coolant solution is applied to the granules while mixing or conveying to lower the temperature by evaporation.  Water quenching rapidly cools granules through latent heat of evaporation, temperature equilibrium and convection.  However, excess coolant application can lead to rewetting, clumping or leaching sensitive nutrients.  It requires control valves, monitoring and eventual drying to remove any remaining moisture.


Liquid Immersion

Granules are fully submerged in a liquid coolant bath to absorb heat.  Liquid immersion provides the most rapid, equilibrium cooling by achieving a single uniform temperature throughout the granule mass.  However, it requires substantial liquid volumes, there is a risk of overcooling sensitive materials, and thorough drying is still needed to remove any retained moisture.  Non-toxic, non-leachable coolants must be used, and residues must be properly disposed. 



Cooled granules undergo testing to ensure all quality specifications are met before packaging or sale.  Nutrient analysis, moisture, hardness, friability and other critical parameters should not be impacted by drying or cooling methods.  Out-of-spec product receives additional drying, cooling or is discarded to guarantee consistency, safety and performance. 

How to Make Your Fertilizer Particles More Colorful?

There are several ways to make fertilizer granules more colorful:


Add pigments

Inorganic pigments like chromium oxide, iron oxide, titanium dioxide and carbon black can be added to the granules.  Pigments are blended thoroughly into the granules, usually at the same time as any nutrient coatings or supplements are applied using mixers, tumble blenders or pneumatic application equipment.  Pigments provide intense, opaque color but are not reactive and will not affect nutrient content or availability. 


Add dyes

Synthetic organic dyes can be absorbed or chemically bonded onto the surface of granules to produce vivid color tones.  Dyes are applied using pan coaters, extrusion coaters, sprayers or dust-on techniques after any pigments.  Dyes allow for a wider range of color shades but the color may be less durable or fade faster than pigments.  Dyes can also potentially leach into the soil to some degree, depending on the dye type and application method used. 


Add colorants during co-extrusion

For co-extruded granules, colorants such as pigments, dyes or color concentrates can be directly incorporated into the molten fertilizer material during extrusion processing to achieve colored granules.  Extrusion coloration results in evenly colored granules with color chemically bonded throughout.  However, color shade options and changes are more limited using this method.  The colorant must also be compatible with the molten fertilizer material to avoid degradation or separation. 


Control release coatings

Colored release coatings can be applied to fertilizer granules to control and delay the release of nutrients while also providing an intense pigmented color.  Release coatings require specialized resins and waxes blended with pigments.  They produce granules with vivid, long-lasting color but at a higher cost due to specialized materials and application.  The colored coating also determines the release pattern of nutrients from the granule. 


Natural colorings (organic)

For organic or naturally-colored fertilizers, natural pigments and dyes can be used.  Sources include annatto seed, turmeric, cocoa, spinach, blueberry, etc.  Natural colorings are plant-derived but often fade more rapidly and produce more subtle shades.  They do not contain synthetic chemicals and are considered organic but typically require larger amounts to achieve color saturation. 



Colored granules undergo testing to ensure colorfastness, avoidance of color leaching into the soil, and that all nutrient and quality specifications continue to be met.  Testing helps guarantee the color will be retained during handling, storage and applied use without impacting fertilizer performance, safety or organic certification.  Out-of-spec product receives additional coloring treatment or is discarded. 

How to Pack your Fertilizer Particles Automatically?

There are several automated methods for packing fertilizer particles:



Bag packaging

Fertilizer granules can be packaged into paper, plastic or cloth bags using automated bagging equipment.  This includes volumetric and gravimetric bag filling machines.  Volumetric fillers add a preset volume of granules to each bag.  Gravimetric fillers accurately weigh each bag before filling to a target weight.  Bagging equipment requires a hopper to hold the granules, filling spout and either a volumetric or gravimetric system for controlling fill amounts into bags which are then heat sealed. 



Big bag packaging

Large rectangular bags (tote bags or supersacks) can be automatically filled and sealed with fertilizer granules.  Granules are added using a filling spout connected to a surge bin or directly from a bulk storage silo.  Once filled, big bags are heat sealed along seams to lock in product.  Big bags require a forklift for transport and have a capacity of 0.5 to 2 tons of granules per bag.  


Bulk truck packaging

Bulk trucks can be outfitted with blow hoses, fill pipes, or surge/buffer bins to automatically fill with fertilizer granules from silos for direct delivery and bulk sale.  Colored dyes or other additives are included to properly identify different products before loading into trucks to prevent contamination during transport or at customer sites. 


Container packaging

Smaller ovoid, cube or other shaped plastic, steel or composite containers can be automatically filled with granules and sealed.  Containers are filled using volumetric or gravimetric systems with spouts for filling, then linearly heat sealed and quartz UV cured along seams to moisture-proof and seal the package.  Containers typically hold between 2 to 50 lbs of fertilizer granules. 


Elevator systems

Automated screw, belt or pneumatic elevator systems can be used to fill multi-story warehouse silos with fertilizer granules for large scale storage before bagging, big bag, bulk truck or container packaging and shipping.  An elevator system requires an inlet for adding loose granules and can fill silos at a controlled, dust-free rate up to multiple stories high for lowest cost long-term storage. 



All packaged fertilizer product undergoes testing to ensure it meets specifications before shipping.  Nutrient analysis, moisture content, pH, conductivity, flowability, dustiness and other critical parameters are measured on samples from each packaging run to guarantee consistency, quality and safety across all packaged and shipped product.  Out-of-spec product receives re-processing, re-testing or is rejected.

Different Fertilizer Shapes Produced by Double Roller Press Granulator

A double roller press granulator can produce fertilizer granules in different shapes depending on the configuration and settings.  Some common shapes include:



The most common shape.  Spherical granules are produced when the rollers are spaced evenly apart and rotate at the same speed, forming fluid, rounded granules.  Spherical granules have a high surface area to volume ratio for efficient nutrient release. 



Elongated teardrop shapes.  Ovoid granules are formed by increasing the distance between the rollers, allowing the granules to stretch into an oval shape before becoming rounded at the ends.  Ovoid granules have a larger size than spherical granules for the same weight, so they contain fewer fines and less surface area.  They are more durable for certain applications. 



Elongated cylindrical shapes.  Cylindrical granules are produced by increasing the roller speed and compression, forming flattened cylindrical granules.  They have minimal surface area and very slow, controlled release of nutrients.  Cylindrical granules are often used for slow-release, timed-release or controlled-release fertilizers. 



Rounded irregular shapes.  Uneven roller spacing, speed or pressure settings can form irregularly shaped granules with an uneven, jagged surface.  Irregular granules have high variability in size, shape, surface area and release characteristics.  They have low nutrient use efficiency and are not typically used in commercial products due to inconsistent performance. 



Larger granule clusters formed by insufficient compaction.  If the rollers are spaced too far apart or do not apply enough pressure, the granules will only partially fuse together, forming loose granule clusters (agglomerates) instead of a uniform shape.  Agglomerates tend to be weak, crumbly and have poor handling properties.  They require additional processing to improve strength before use. 



Granules that fracture or split open under high compression.  If the rollers are set too close together or rotating at too high a speed, the granules can crack or split apart instead of fusing into a solid shape.  Cracked granules have an excessively high surface area, with nutrients leaching out too rapidly.  They perform more like a powder or dissolved fertilizer than a controlled-release granule. 


Proper configuration and calibration of the double roller press granulator is critical to achieving high quality, uniform fertilizer granules in the desired shape and with specified release characteristics.  Adjusting roller spacing, speed, and compression pressure allows producing a range of granule shapes and properties for different uses and purposes. 

What is the Price of A Double Roller Press Granulator

The price of a double roller press granulator can vary depending on the size, materials, automation and brand, but you can expect to pay between $100,000 to $500,000 or more for a new granulator.  Some factors that affect the cost include:



Granulators with higher productivity and batch sizes tend to cost more.  Small bench-top or pilot granulators may be $100-200,000 while large commercial granulators can be $400,000-$500,000+.  Capacities of 1-5 tons per hour are common for mid-sized granulators. 



Granulators built for abrasive, corrosive or heat-sensitive materials often cost more due to specialized construction.  Stainless steel granulators tend to cost 10-30% more than mild steel.  Rubber or ceramic rollers may add 20-50% to the price. 



Fully automated granulators with programmable controls, dust collection, batch blending equipment, automated dryer linkage and other features tend to cost 10-30% more than manual machines.  Automatic moisture content monitoring and control systems can cost $20,000-$50,000 extra. 



Well-known, reputable granulator brands are often able to charge a small premium over lesser-known brands.  Prices can vary by 10-20% between comparable machines of different brands.  Custom and private-label granulators may also cost slightly more.


Additional Features

Other features that can increase cost include fertilizer coloring/dye systems ($30-70K), nutrient coating systems ($50-200K), fines recirculation ($15-50K), weighing systems for gravimetric filling ($10-30K), auto cleaning systems ($10-30K) and programmable recipe storage ($5-30K).


After-Sales Support

Strong, multi-lingual global support with many service locations and certified engineers can allow a company to charge slightly higher prices due to the comprehensive support and service provided.  After-sales support is an important factor for many fertilizer companies.


In summary, for a typical mid-sized commercial double roller press granulator, you can expect to pay between $200,000 to $400,000 or more from a reputable brand, depending on the specifications.  Higher capacity, automation, materials and additional features will increase the price, while generic or lower-cost models may start around $150,000. 

Quality Control of Double Roller Press Granulator

Effective quality control is critical for ensuring fertilizer granules produced from a double roller press granulator meet specifications.  Some important aspects of quality control include:


Moisture content monitoring

The moisture content of granules is carefully controlled during production and tested frequently to avoid over-drying or rewetting the material.  Too high moisture leads to granule strength and handling issues, too low reduces effectiveness.  Moisture analyzers are used to monitor content in real-time. 


Nutrient analysis

The nutrient analysis (N-P-K grade) of granules is tested at regular intervals to ensure even distribution of nutrients and that analysis meets target specifications.  Nutrient levels that are off-specification can impact performance, safety, and regulatory compliance. 


pH and conductivity

The acidity (pH) and soluble salt (conductivity) of granules are tested to verify levels remain in an acceptable, non-phytotoxic range that will not damage crops or the environment.  Unstable or changing pH/conductivity indicates nutrient segregation or other issues. 


Granule size and size distribution

The diameter and distribution (size range) of granules are frequently measured using sieves or laser diffraction to ensure a consistent, target product size is being achieved batch to batch.  Granules that are too large or small, or with excessive fines, do not perform optimally. 


Hardness and friability

The hardness (resistance to crushing) and friability (ease of breaking) of granules are tested to guarantee they have sufficient strength for handling and application but still break down properly to release nutrients.  Granules that are too hard or soft do not function well as a controlled-release fertilizer. 


Dust and attrition

The amount of dust produced and the breakdown of granules over time (attrition) are tested to minimize environmental and safety issues from excess dust, and ensure the granule has adequate durability to withstand application, transport and storage without excessive attrition. 


Appearance and color

Appearance including shape, surface texture, color and colorfastness are inspected visually and tested instrumentally to verify granules meet aesthetic specifications and the color will not wash out or fade noticeably during use.  Improper appearance or color instability can impact customer perceptions and satisfaction.


Testing frequency

All critical tests are conducted at a minimum on every batch, and often continuously or repeatedly within a single long batch production run.  Testing frequency depends on process controls, historical trends and quality requirements.  Less stable processes require more frequent testing. 


Continuous testing, monitoring and quick correction of any out-of-specification results is key to maintaining high quality from a double roller press granulator. 

How to Clean Double Roller Press Granulator

Periodic cleaning is important for keeping a double roller press granulator in good working condition and producing high quality fertilizer granules.  Some tips for cleaning a double roller press granulator:


Shut down and lock out power before cleaning any parts

Ensure all moving parts have completely stopped to avoid injury. 


Use the proper cleaning tools

This includes brushes, shovels, air guns, solvents, detergents and protective equipment like gloves, goggles and respirators depending on product and equipment. 


Vacuum hoppers, feeders, rolls and frame

Use vacuums, shovels and brushes to remove any built-up fertilizer material from hoppers, feeders, between rollers and along the granulator frame.  Getting into small cracks and crevices is important.


Scrub rolls and surfaces

Scrub roller surfaces, mounting collars, feed plates and other surfaces where material builds up using abrasive brushes, detergents and abrasive spades.  For sticky or hard-setting materials, heat may be needed to loosen. 


Blow out dust and fine particles

Use compressed air or high-pressure air blowers to fully remove any dust, fines, debris or residual material from all surfaces.  Air is very effective on cleaning cracks, seals and small parts. 


Wipe down moving parts lubrication

Ensure any rollers, bearings, hinges and other moving parts are cleanly wiped to maintain effective lubrication.  Built-up material can damage lubricating greases and shorten part life. 


Clean hopper seams and joints

 Where hoppers meet the granulator body and feeders meet hoppers, material can build up and jam or leak.  Clean and seal these joints to prevent issues.  Weatherstripping tape may be used. 


Hose down entire granulator

As an optional final step, you can hose down the entire granulator using a high-pressure washer to remove any remaining debris before restarting.  Be very careful using water on electrical components. 


Test and inspect before restarting

Thoroughly inspect the entire granulator and ensure all parts are clean, securely fastened, properly lubricated and in good working condition before restarting production. 


Establish a regular cleaning schedule

 Determine how often cleaning is needed based on the product, run time hours, material stickiness and other factors.  More frequent, partial cleaning is typically easier than long cycles between deep cleans. 


Record and trend issues to prevent problems

Note any badly built-up or damaged parts that require repair or replacement.  Look for trends to determine if any process or sequence changes can help reduce maintenance needs over time.

Maintenance Work of Double Roller Press Granulator

Regular maintenance is important to keep a double roller press granulator operating efficiently and safely.  Some key aspects of maintenance include:



All moving parts like rollers, bearings, hinges and shafts require lubrication.  Apply grease with the proper consistency and at recommended intervals based on hours of operation.  Lack of lubrication leads to excess friction, heat buildup and premature part failure. 


Roller trueness

Roller profiles can become distorted over time, leading to issues like leaking, uneven material flow and poor granule formation.  Roller trueness should be checked periodically using a straightedge and cumbersome portions ground down by a machine shop to restore proper shape. 


Seal and gasket replacement

Seals and gaskets prevent material leakage and ensure product purity, but will become worn and damaged over time.  Inspect seals regularly and replace any that are torn, cracked, loose or allowing leaks. 


Paint and coating touch up

Granulator surfaces are often painted or coated to prevent corrosion and for appearance.  Touch up any chipped or damaged paint/coatings to maintain protection using the proper matching products. 


Electrical connections

Look for any loose, corroded or damaged electrical connections, wires or terminals which could lead to shorts circuiting, voltage drops or component malfunctions if not addressed.  Tighten and repair or replace as needed. 


Belts and chain condition

Apron feeder belts, chain drives and other moving parts with belts and chains should be checked for wear, stretching or damage which can affect performance or cause slipping.  Belts and chains should be tightened or replaced as recommended for the specific equipment. 


Roller adjustment

Over time, roller spacing can change slightly through normal operation and wear, impacting the quality and characteristics of produced granules.  Roller spacing should be checked periodically to ensure it remains at the optimal set point for the material and specifications. Minor adjustments may need to be made. 


Filter and dust collector maintenance

Air filters and dust collection components get clogged over time and require maintenance to function properly and safely.  Check filters for damage or high restriction and clean or replace as needed.  Empty dust collection bins and clean cyclones/cartridges regularly. 


Calibration and testing

Perform regular calibration testing on critical controls and components like moisture probes, nutrient analyzers, hardnesss testers, size analyzers, etc.  to ensure accuracy is being maintained.  Uncalibrated equipment will produce inconsistent results compromising quality and performance. 


Record keeping

Keep written records of all maintenance, repairs, part replacement, calibration checks and testing performed on the granulator.  Records help identify any issues early, determine failed part trends and ensure regulatory compliance requirements are met.

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How to Use a Double Roller Press Granulator to Make Your Own Fertilizer Pellets?

Using a double roller press granulator to produce your own fertilizer pellets involves the following basic steps:


Select your fertilizer materials

Choose a nitrogen, phosphate and potash source to achieve your desired N-P-K analysis.  Common materials include ammonium nitrate, phosphate rock, potassium chloride, etc.  You may need to combine multiple materials to reach your target analysis. 


Determine the optimal moisture content

Most granules require 8-12% moisture for proper die compaction, but this can vary based on materials used.  Add water to or dry your materials as needed to achieve the right moisture level before granulating.  Too much moisture will lead to weak, crumbly pellets.  Too little and pellets will not form properly.


Adjust roller gap and speed

Set the roller gap (space between rollers) to the diameter of pellets you want to produce.  Start with a wider gap and decrease in small increments until pellets form.  Roller speed and feed rate will also affect pellet size, so experiment to determine the optimal settings for your materials and moisture.  Slower speeds and lower feed rates give bigger pellets.


Apply pressure gradually

As you feed the material between the rollers, gradually increase compression to form the material into pellets of even size.  Apply pressure slowly until pellets start to form, then make minor adjustments to gap width and speed/feed rate to improve pellet quality and size uniformity. 


Cool and harden pellets

Pass pellets through a cooler, such as a spiral cooler or fluid bed cooler, before bagging or hardening them further.  Cooling helps pellets retain their shape better during handling and storage.  For added durability, pellets can be rolled or flattened and then cut while still slightly warm. 


Adjust as needed

Test pellet size, durability, nutrient uniformity and release characteristics to ensure they meet your requirements before large scale production.  Make adjustments to materials, moisture, gap width, speed or cooling method as needed to optimize pellet performance.  Properly optimized pellets will not crumble or segregate nutrients even under extreme conditions.


Bag, bag big bags or sell bulk

Once pellet quality and consistency have been achieved, you can bag the pellets in small retail bags, fill large bulk bags (‘big bags’) for wholesale or livestock feed sale, or sell the pellets in bulk for further processing or industrial use. 

Preparation Steps To Operate Double Roller Press Granulator Safely And Efficiently

Some important preparation steps to operate a double roller press granulator safely and efficiently include:



Ensure proper training

Only trained operators should run the granulator.  Make sure all operators understand set up, operation and shutdown procedures, safety mechanisms, quality control processes and emergency response procedures. 



Check and prepare materials

Inspect all fertilizer materials before adding to the granulator to ensure none contain debris that could damage equipment.  Adjust materials and combine as needed to meet product specifications.  Determine optimal moisture content for die compaction and granulation. 



Calibrate controls and sensors

Check calibration of moisture analyzers, nutrient ratio controllers, pellet size analyzers, hardness testers and other controls to ensure accurate monitoring and adjustment during production.  Uncalibrated equipment will produce inconsistent, substandard product.



Perform maintenance check

Conduct a thorough check of all granulator components including rollers, bearings, seals, hinges, filters, lubricants, paint/coatings, drive systems and safety mechanisms before startup.  Address any issues to prevent equipment damage, injury or low quality product.



Set correct roller configuration

Determine the optimal roller gap width, speed and compression settings needed for your materials and pellet size/hardness specifications.  Make incremental adjustments during trial runs until you achieve ideal performance.  Roller settings have a significant impact on results.



Ensure proper dust control and filtration

Check that all dust collectors, cyclones, filters and ventilation equipment are clean and functioning properly before production.  Adequate dust control is critical for safety, air quality, environmental compliance and processing efficiency. 


Check safety mechanisms

Ensure all safety interlocks, limit switches, emergency stop buttons, guarding and shielding are properly installed and functioning on the granulator before use.  Do not operate the equipment if any safety mechanisms are damaged, bypassed or non-functional.


Develop trial run procedures

Conduct multiple trial production runs using limited material quantities and at lower feed rates until consistently achieving target product specifications.  Make incremental adjustments to controls and settings between runs.  Full scale production should only start once ideal performance is achieved. 


Document run parameters and product quality

Record all settings and parameters for each production run including roller gap, speed, compression, feed rate, moisture, nutrient analysis, pellet size/hardness, etc.  Also record results of any quality testing done.  Run documentation provides an audit trail to maximize consistency and determine optimal performance settings for different materials and specifications. 

Double Roller Press Granulator (3)

Why People Want to Invest in Double Roller Press Granulator

There are several benefits to investing in a double roller press granulator:


Produce granular fertilizer for sale

A double roller press granulator can be used to produce granular fertilizer products like controlled-release fertilizer, coated fertilizer, deficiency correction mixes, etc.  These higher-value granular products often have lower handling and transportation costs and longer shelf life, allowing for higher profits. 


Reduce dust and improve safety

Double roller press granulators compress materials into stronger granules with less fines and dust.  This improves safety by reducing respiratory hazards and fire/explosion risks, saving costs on dust control equipment and making the product less irritating to handle and apply. 


Improve nutrient use efficiency

Stronger, more uniform granules with controlled porosity allow for slower, more controlled release of nutrients into the soil.  This results in less nutrient leaching and a more efficient uptake of nutrients by plant roots, reducing waste and environmental impact while lowering the amount of fertilizer needed. 


Achieve and maintain consistent quality

Double roller press granulators produce granules with a uniform size, shape and nutrient/additive distribution due to consistent control and monitoring of the process.  This consistent, dependable product quality builds customer confidence and loyalty, premium pricing potential and regulatory compliance. 


Increase customer base

The value-added benefits of a granular fertilizer product from a double roller press granulator, including safety, efficiency and quality, appeal to a wider range of customers including professionals, organic producers, homeowners, turf managers, export markets and livestock producers in addition to traditional agricultural customers. 


Gain manufacturing flexibility

A double roller press granulator provides flexibility to produce different granule sizes, release patterns, nutrient analyses and with various additives/coatings and dyes or pigments as needed to meet diverse customer and market demands.  This allows keeping customers and maximizing sales potential rather than being limited to a single fixed product. 


Improve productivity and reduce costs

Well-tuned double roller press granulators can produce granules at higher throughput and lower energy use per unit volume compared to alternative processing methods like prilling, extrusion or pelletization.  Lower costs, faster production and minimal waste translate to higher profit margins.


Increase value of side streams

A double roller press granulator can be used to granulate non-traditional materials like manure, biosolids, byproducts, waste and recycled materials into valuable, reusable fertilizer components.  This “upcycling” of waste streams into high-value fertilizer reduces costs, environmental impact and dependence on mined materials. 


In summary, a double roller press granulator offers many potential benefits for producing and selling fertilizer products including higher profits, improved safety, increased quality and consistency, larger customer bases, greater flexibility and lower costs.

How to Become a Compound Fertilizer Manufacturer?

Here are some steps to become a compound fertilizer manufacturer:


Determine your fertilizer product options

Will you produce nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or potash (K) fertilizers, NPK combinations or specialized products like slow release, coated or micronutrients?  Choose 1-2 product lines to focus on based on market demand and your capabilities. 


Select your manufacturing equipment

You will need equipment to accept raw materials, process and blend them into your products.  Options include granulators, prills/pellets mills, blenders, coaters, etc.  Double roller presses and drum granulators are common for NPK blends.  Choose equipment that meets your output needs and product types. 


Obtain equipment financing

Fertilizer manufacturing equipment can be expensive.  You will need capital to purchase all necessary equipment.  Options include business loans, lines of credit, equipment financing, crowdfunding or investors.  Make sure you can afford repayments while keeping costs low. 


Procure high quality raw materials

Sources include ammonia/urea, phosphate rock, potash, micronutrients, polymers, dyes,etc.  Ensure materials meet specifications and are properly registered/permitted for use in fertilizer products before purchasing large quantities.  Develop supplier relationships for continuity and best pricing. 

Rent or build a manufacturing facility

You will need a properly licensed and zoned facility to house your equipment, store raw materials and finished products, and conduct manufacturing operations.  Options include renting an existing space or constructing your own building.  Secure long-term occupancy for stability. 


Obtain permits and licenses

Most areas require specific permits and licenses for fertilizer manufacturing, storage and sale.  These include building permits, zoning permits, air and water permits, safety permits, wholesale product registration, etc.  Make sure you understand all requirements before getting started. 


Build your customer base

Sell your fertilizer products through retailers, cooperatives, wholesalers or your own retail stores and eCommerce site.  Offer competitive pricing, quality and service to attract customers.  Focus sales and marketing on promoting your specific product lines, quality and value. 


Continue improving and expanding

As your business grows, look for ways to produce more efficiently, add new product lines, improve formulations, and reach more customers.  You may need to invest in additional and/or larger equipment.  Remain up-to-date with trends, regulations and new technologies to maintain a competitive advantage.


Provide excellent customer service

The key to business growth and success is building customer loyalty through trust, reliability and service.  Offer technical support, quick order fulfillment, product replacements or returns if needed, and a quality guarantee to keep customers coming back.

How To Choose The Double Roller Press Granulator?

Here are some factors to consider when choosing a double roller press granulator:

Capacity and productivity

Determine how much material you need to process per hour to meet production goals.  Higher capacity granulators will generally cost more but improve efficiency and throughput.  Typical capacities range from 1 to 10 tons per hour. 

Material type

Do you need a granulator for dry, friable materials or wet, cohesive materials?  Materials like urea, ammonium nitrate and potash tend to be drier, while manure, biosolids and composted materials tend to be wetter.  Design and roll material will impact which granulator suits your needs. 

Product specifications

Determine the size, hardness, friability, nutrient analysis, moisture content and other specifications your granules must meet.  Then choose a granulator that can produce granules meeting all of your key requirements for different products.  Some granulators are better for controlled release fertilizer than others. 

Dust control

If processing very fine or dusty materials, integrated or vast dust collection will be important.  Look for granulators with advanced dust seals, filters and ventilation to minimize pollution and fire/explosion hazards based on the materials you will process.  Granulator design and included dust systems will impact costs, maintenance needs and operational efficiency. 


Decide if you want a manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic granulator based on factors like control/consistency needs, operator availability, complexity of materials/products, production volume, cost and maintenance requirements.  More automation provides tighter controls but higher costs and complexity. 

Ease of use and maintenance

Choose a granulator that is easy and safe to set up, operate, adjust, clean and maintain for your situation.  Consider available technical support in case issues arise.  If you have limited experience with granulators, one with straightforward, intuitive controls and minimal maintenance needs will be more suitable and cost-effective. 

Foreseeable expansion needs

Determine if you may need to increase capacity or add different product lines in the coming years.  Select a granulator platform that allows easy expansion through additions like larger feed hoppers, additional roll stands, alternatively sized rolls, upgraded dust systems, etc.  Future-proofing will reduce premature equipment replacements. 

Brand and reputation

Well-known, reputable granulator brands with a solid reputation for quality, reliability, durability and support tend to provide the best value, though often at a higher upfront cost.  Lesser-known brands may be more affordable initially but require extra maintenance and have higher lifetime costs.  Reputation and a proven track record of performance and support are important, especially if new to granulator use.


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Founded in 2010, Anyang Ainuok Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd is specialised in the research, development, production and sales of all kinds of fertilizer making machines for more than 10 years.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Typical capacities range from 1 to 10 tons per hour depending on model, number of roll stands and automated features. Higher capacities mean greater throughput but also higher costs, complexity and maintenance needs.

Double roller press granulators can handle most dry, free-flowing materials as well as some pastes and slurries. Common materials include urea, ammonium nitrate, phosphate rock, potash, biosolids, manure, compost and micronutrients. Wetter materials require sealed edges and gap adjustment.

Granule size, hardness, moisture content, nutrient analysis and release pattern can all be controlled through roll gap, speed, compression, material attributes and any coatings. You can produce fertilizers for different uses, seasons or even coated/colored products for specialized markets.

Double roller press granulator costs range from $150,000 up to $500,000 or more for larger commercial models. Factors like capacity, material construction, automation, brand and included features will impact the price. Additional costs include installation, permits, maintenance and laboratory equipment for quality testing.

Double roller press granulators require regular maintenance like lubricating moving parts, checking and repairing/replacing seals/gaskets, adjusting gap widths, cleaning built-up material and dust collection systems, and general upkeep. Failure to properly maintain the granulator will reduce productivity, produce lower quality products, increase hazards and result in higher repair costs over the lifetime of the equipment.

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